How to calculate Selling price Cost, Margin, Discount and Rebates (All Considered)


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How do you calculate selling price of a product with cost and margin, while taking into account discount and rebates offered to the customer. If you have tried this calculation of a selling price of a product which requires not only the calculation of markup as you only have margin %, but also complicating the calculation are the discount and rebate factors, you probably ended up seeing a Circular Reference error in Excel. This is because the Selling price needs to be calculated, but discount and rebate / commission are also calculated based on the selling price. In this video, I will show you how computers and Excel can help.

Here is the Video …

Microsoft Excel comes with a built in Solver add-in that does the calculation for you. The Solver Add-in is an advanced version of the Goal Seek function and can even consider constraints to the calculation. All you need to do is to set up the product cost calculation template in a way that the Solver Add-in can do the calculation for you. If you had to do it on your own, you would have to use the trial and error method. But with the Excel Solver Add-in, you don’t have to worry, as it is very quick and easy to calculate selling price of a product so that you can achieve the target margin as well as consider discount and rebates and commissions (if applicable). So, if you are provided with, say discount of 1% and rebates of 3% that the customer would usually be able to claim, you can consider this in the product pricing decisions, and with the help of this calculation, you can calculate exactly the price you need to sell for, in order to still achieve the margin % that was originally required.

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How to use Excel XLOOKUP Function – 7 tips for Reporting and Analysis using XLOOKUP


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Learn how to use Excel XLOOKUP and what this function can do for you. In this video, I will share 7 practical ways in which you can use the new XLOOKUP function which serves as a perfect replacement for both VLOOKUP and XLOOKUP.

We start with a real life work situation where you have to respond with data requests quickly. The first situation being where the General Manager is asking for Sales for specific customers within 5 minutes. Not only do you provide him the information requested within 5 minutes, but you go above and beyond to provide additional information that he may be interested in. In the second example, your Manager is asking you to complete and send the sales commission file based on annual sales and commission plan. You use XLOOKUP Match mode functionality to quickly respond to the Manager with the completed sales commission report.

In the third example, you have been asked by the Purchasing Manager to provide him help with pulling the most recent purchase price from a long list of materials and purchase history. You use the Search Mode argument of the XLOOKUP function to reverse the order of the data and provide by material SKU, the most recent purchase price and earn bragging rights.

In the fourth example, the external auditors have asked you to provide information related to customers, in a layout which is the opposite of how your sales data is set up. Knowing well that XLOOKUP can replace horizontal lookup or HLOOKUP, you quickly pull the information in the requested format and respond to auditor’s request.

Finally I share a tip that I have personally been using since the VLOOKUP days which would help you avoid XLOOKUP error, when by mistake the data ranges (lookup array and return array) are not aligned. This tip actually saves a lot of time as well and has been one of my favorite tips.

If you have more questions, or would like to learn about advanced ways of using XLOOKUP, please leave a comment. If you enjoy the information provided in the video, please do not forget to press Thumbs Up

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6 Advanced Pivot Table tricks for Financial Analysis and Reporting


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Microsoft Excel pivot tables are a great tool for simplifying data analysis and reporting. It pays off to learn these advanced pivot table tips and tricks as it can save you hours in time, and also increases your accuracy. The advanced pivot table tips and tricks are a must know for everyone involved in analyzing data or creating and presenting reports. Here are the tips and tricks that are shared in this video…

  1. Apply custom filter using Grouping

2. Grouping to create Data Range or buckets

3. Grouping Dates using Pivot tables

4. Creating Pivot table calculated fields

5. Combining and analyzing two reports in different formats

6. Pivot table slicers and slicer connections

We will start with the powerful grouping function available with the pivot tables. We will look at different examples of grouping, including custom grouping when you want to create a new group that is not available in the source data. After creating custom grouping, you will be able analyze data at the new group level which is extremely useful.

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Make these 4 Changes to Your Resume before you apply for your next Job

Your resume or CV is your gateway for landing jobs. In most cases, you apply by submitting your resume. If you do not have a job, second to networking with the right people, updating your resume is the most important thing you can do. It is worth spending a lot more time than you already have. But what is wrong with your resume? Why does nobody contact you after you have applied.

The Mindset of Hiring Managers

When I did not know what goes on behind the scenes, I was so upset with not getting any responses from the employers that I started believing that most of the job postings are fake. But that is not true. Unfortunately, in the field of Accounting and Finance, despite many open vacancies, the number of applicants for each job is usually very high. As a result the only option left with the hiring managers, whether from Finance or HR function, is to quickly skim through the resumes and shortlist candidates. Do you know what this means? This means they are looking to eliminate candidates first before they start really going through the resumes in more detail to see if the candidate is the right fit. This is why tailoring your resume to each job posted is so important. Here are my 3 tips on tailoring your resume that will make it stick, and lead to an interview call.

1) Be Selective

Let me suggest to you here that despite your keenness on landing any and every job interview, you need to be selective as well. Just like the hiring managers, you should be able to eliminate jobs postings that do not seem relevant to your experience. Guard your energy level when applying for jobs. From the available list of job postings you should be able to short list jobs that you think are at least a 75% match with your experience and skills. I am not saying that you do not apply on job postings that are under 75% match, they can be part of your second round, once you are caught up with all the 1st grade matches. In the world of abundant applicants, quality and uniqueness is the key.

2) First things First

Once you have identified the jobs, read the description slowly and try to create a mental picture of what the role looks like. What are the challenges that the current employers are facing? What would be there ideal candidate for this role? Then start listing the experience, skills and achievements that match the requirement. Make sure to list the most important skills for the job first. The first few seconds of reading your resume are the most crucial so that you do not become part of the elimination list. If they read the first few lines of your resume, chance that they will read the rest of it increases dramatically, and so do the chances of you being called for interview.

3) Add examples, stats and numbers

Once you have the mental picture of the job requirements, you know exactly which of your experiences, skills and examples you need to highlight early in your resume so that it lights up the tired eyes of your recruiters or hiring managers. For example, if the role is related to the manufacturing industry, and you have worked for a manufacturing company as well as a retail and and a service firm, you know they will be most interested in your manufacturing experience. I can even predict that if you get an interview call, they will be asking questions mostly about your time and experience in the manufacturing company.

So, you need to highlight the same experience. Your resume will be heavy on your manufacturing experience. Not only that, even your experience details for retail and service industry should highlight skills that are similar to, or transferable to the manufacturing industry. Add numbers and details. If you helped the company save costs. Don’t just say that! Mention how you did that and how much cost you saved. For example you can state on your resume; “helped save $300,000 by identifying vendor billing errors over a period of three months” (true story by the way!). It does not really matter if the amount is small. It shows that you care and are always looking to add value to your organization which makes you stand out from the crowd. If you got promoted quickly, mention that. If you received a special award or recognition for your performance, mention that. Whatever is true and can make you stand out without sounding overly arrogant, you should include in your resume with examples and numbers.

4) Always include a carefully written cover letter

I have never submitted a resume without a cover letter. Even if the job posting clearly asks for a two page resume, my two page resume will always be followed by a cover letter. Ideally, the cover letter should be the first page the hiring managers or recruiters should see. A well written cover letter can make all the difference. Generally, the resume is very rigid and restricted in the quantity and type of information you can include in it.

A cover letter can take the form of a conversation though and that is where lies its power. I do not recommend the cover letter being longer than a single page. But you can summarize your most important strengths and skills, directly related to the job in the cover letter. The cover letter should be written in such a way that if someone does not even read your resume, they know what you bring to the table. This does not mean you summarize all your skills, experience and qualifications on the cover letter. The cover letter is all about exactly what you have determined to be the most important skills and experience required based on reading the job posting. Use formatting such as bold and italics to guide the eye of the recruiter to the most important and interesting facts about you.

Note: If you would like to learn in detail, how to calculate sales variances and the impact they have on sales $, profit $ and profit margin %, and how to explain performance vs budget and prior periods, click here for a detailed video course (at a special discounted price for readers of this post) showing exactly how this is done. You also learn how to analyse and present the results of the variances to management.

In order to make the cover letter stand out, I have often included remarks, or comments received during my previous employments. For example, once while I was a Senior Financial Analyst, the CFO of the organization remarked, “you have raised the bar in the FP&A department”. Guess what? this phrase is a permanent fixture, typed in bold format, in all of my cover letters. By doing this, the reader gets intrigued and likes to read more on the cover letter. Once you have there attention for 15 seconds, you are probably off of their elimination list and the likelihood of them calling you for interview also increases significantly. You can also include similar statements or remarks in your cover letter, as long as they are true.

I hope these 4 tips that I have shared with you will help you significantly in getting your dream job quickly, as they helped me when I first learnt and applied them. Leave a comment and let me know about your experience.

I have a YouTube channel with helpful accounting and finance, Excel and career related videos. You can find my channel by clicking on the link LearnAccountingFinance.

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How to make Memorable Finance Presentations every time!

Are you about to make a Finance presentation? Is it about the financial performance of your company? or is it a business review? Don’t worry! In this article, you will learn exactly how to make your Financial presentations memorable. You can use headings in this article as your checklist for making presentations. Check off all the items during your financial presentation, and you will be making great presentations consistently.

In order to make a Finance presentation, or any presentation, you need to consider the following three key ingredients:


  1. Yourself
  2. Your presentation / Slide
  3. Your audience

1. Yourself

1a. Your Purpose – Story Telling!

Before you even start collecting all the data, charts and information, understand that you have one purpose for your presentation. You will be telling a story. This will save you countless hours of collecting and organizing unnecessary information, that goes into slides that you later have to eliminate from your presentation. This happens a lot. You could use this time to add so much more value. Having a story telling mindset gives you direction and focus.

But what does story telling mean, when it comes to financial presentations? It means “what happened?”, “what does it mean?” and “whats next?”. Most accounting and finance professionals stop at the what happened stage. This is good information, but it leaves the audience unfulfilled. They need closure. And that comes in the form of what does it mean? and what should be done next?.

For example, you mention in your presentation that sales have increased by $50,000 year over year. This reflects what happened. First, you can add a little more detail to what happened by explaining, for example, that $40,000 or 80% of the total increase is a direct result of price increase for a major customer, while the remaining $10,000 or 20% resulted from increased quantity sold overall. To explain what it means, you can highlight that the business is growing in the Northern region and one of your largest customers has agreed to increased pricing. This may mean there is room to increase prices to customers at least in the Northern region. Now, for what’s next, you can suggest reviewing prices for other customers in the region, and also looking at how the price increase was negotiated for this customer, so that it can be replicated for other customers.

You will be really telling the story if you can add a few personal details. For example, in the case of the sales price increase, may be one of the sales rep has worked exceptionally hard, or may be a new sales rep joined the team, and you can share some details of their performance for the year that should help motivate other sales team members as well.

Note: If you would like to learn in detail, how to calculate sales variances and the impact they have on sales $, profit $ and profit margin %, and how to explain performance vs budget and prior periods, click here for a detailed video course (at a special discounted price for readers of this post) showing exactly how this is done. You also learn how to analyse and present the results of the variances to management.

1b. Preparation and Self Confidence

Once you understand that the main purpose of almost all of your presentations is telling stories, you know how to prepare. Look for information that supports a story you are trying to tell. If you do not know what story to tell, let the data guide you. Here are a few tips for boosting self confidence before presenting financial results:

  • Practice presenting. This is a simple way to get better at presenting. You can even practice at your home. Use a camera to record yourself presenting. You will learn so much about your presenting style and what needs to be improved. Record yourself presenting multiple times, each time trying to fix areas you identified. One of the issues you will notice is that you are speaking too fast. Slow down! and see how dramatically it improves your presentation.
  • Exercise! you should exercise every day any way. However, on the day of your presentation, work out a little. It helps calm you down and feel good. It could be as simple as a short 10 minutes run around the block.
  • Be ahead of schedule! Get into the meeting room or presentation hall early and test the equipment, such as projector and microphone etc. You do not want to be scrambling to fix audio and video issues with your audience waiting in the room. This will give you a very shaky start.
  • Use strong body language postures before the presentation to make you feel confident. Research suggests that two minutes of power posing for example, standing tall with arms wide open, or standing like super man with hands on your hips dramatically improves your confidence. I have personally tried this and it has worked really well for me.

1c. Dealing with Data Issues

This is part of your preparation. However, for the accounting and finance community, this is so common that it deserves a separate heading. Many of us deal with data issues on a frequent basis. The data may be incomplete or unreliable. An approach that many of us take is to lay this out in the presentation. We talk about how there is not enough reliable data to provide any conclusion. For example, when explaining an increase in the cost of sales, you may state that it may be that part of the increase in cost of sales is due to purchase price increase, however, our systems do not capture this data correctly, so we cannot really say that.

The problem with such a statement is that it does not really help your audience. Spend some more time during the preparation and data gathering stage of your presentation so that you can really provide conclusive statements. If you drill down with the aim of determining whether purchase price increase is a factor, you will probably find a way to tell whether it is a factor or not with reasonable certainty. You might even be able to quantify the impact. You spend a little more time thinking, and look for some more information that is already available, that may not have occurred to you. Note how much better this statement sounds compared to the previous one. Our Cost of sales has increased by $20,000, 30% of this increase, which is $6,000, is a direct result of increase in purchase price of Product A, compared to last year.   

Note: If you would like to learn how purchase price variance is calculated and accounted for, click on…

1d. Your Credibility

Credibility is something you develop over time, but it helps a lot when making financial presentations that your audience already places a high level of reliance on you. This reliance is a resultant of the quality of service you have already provided. Every time you have been asked for some ad-hoc information or analysis, did you provide a response that was well presented and accurate? As an accounting or finance professional, you will inevitably have to make financial presentations some time in your career.

You can start working on your credibility factor immediately. Every time you share financial information, double check to determine accuracy. Read you email from a reader’s perspective and make it easy on the eyes. Make sure any attachments to your email are printer friendly, not just in terms of consumption of ink, but also in terms of page alignments so that the user of information can print the attachment without the need to adjust print settings. What if they were in a hurry to take your printed attachment into a meeting of their own, only to find upon arriving at the printer, that it was printed, split from the middle, on 50 pages. Over the course of my career, I have noted that these small things matter a lot and create a perception of quality and reliability, which is your friend when making financial presentations

2. Your Presentation / Slides

2a. Too much material

If you have practiced your slides, you will know how much time you need to make the presentation. If enough time is not allotted to you, or things are running behind schedule, and you will be getting much less time than was originally allotted to you, here is what you should do. Instead of skimming over the slides quickly trying to make sure you present all of your slides, decide on eliminating a few slides completely. Present the remaining slides in the same way as you had prepared to. This way your presentation will still be memorable, actually this might make it even better.

Even if you have the full allotted time, do not go through your slides quickly. Do not move the cursor around a lot. Do not toggle from Powerpoint to Excel and other files a lot. Apply a calm and steady approach. Let your audience absorb information. Eliminate any information that does not contribute to your overall presentation story.

2b. The use of slides and clutter

If you have more than 5 objects on a slide (including text, pictures and graphs), your audience will begin to struggle cognitively, as they are trying to read or make sense of whats on the screen, as well as listen to you. So limit the number of objects to a maximum of five, but the lesser the better.

Focus only on one issue or topic in one slide, that should be obvious from the title at the top. Do not lump multiple topics or points in one slide. This will help you make clear presentations as well. It does not matter if you end up having a lot of slides. Its OK as long as your message is focused and clear on each slide and there is no clutter on the slides.

2c. Numbers vs Images / Charts

You probably know this already, but our human mind loves charts and pictures. We can always present numbers and results better in terms of graphs and pictures. Some graphs such as waterfall chart, bar graphs, and pie charts are great in visually summarizing results. The best thing about charts is that they are memorable and thus make your presentations memorable.

Her is an example. A waterfall chart that clearly explains a lot of detail in a very simple graphic. Click on the video below to see how you can create an automated waterfall chart in Excel.

2d. Visibility of Slides

Is all the information on your slide easily visible to farthest member of the audience? This includes pictures and specially text. Check font size and color scheme. Try and keep all the content more towards the center and away from the borders of the slide.

3. Your Audience

3a. Know them / Understand them

This is linked to the first step in this article. Your purpose or story. It is crucial that you know who your audience is. If you are presenting financial results to a CFO, or a bunch of Finance professionals, your language and level of detail will be completely different from when you are presenting to, say, factory labor.

One idea that really helps in this case is trying to put yourself in your audience’s shows, or better, in their minds. Try to see their perspective. What do they already know? What would they like to know? What would make them connect with what you are saying? You can get better at this by asking a lot of questions in all your presentations, and allotting a good chunk of time for your audience to ask questions. Over a period of time, you will find a pattern, and you will be able to classify the type of audience and the material that you can present to them.

3b. Engage them

The best way to engage audience is by telling stories and asking questions or sharing interesting facts. Make sure they are aligned with the subject of your presentation though. In engaging audience, eye contact is important too. Many presenters, during their presentations, look at their audience by glancing quickly over everyone in all directions. While they may feel, they are making a connection and engaging with everyone by looking all across the room or hall, but actually real engagement only happens with real, one-to-one eye contact.

A better approach, therefore, is to make and keep eye contact with individuals over the course of the presentation. Let people feel as if you are talking directly to them. Hold the eye contact until you finish the sentence, and then make eye contact with another person and do the same. You will start seeing a lot more heads nodding and a lot more people taking interest in what you have to say. If you see someone who is shy, and uncomfortable with the eye contact, let them go. Do not make them uncomfortable.

3d. Feedback and recognition

It is possible that some people who have helped you in preparing the presentation, or helped you with an aspect of the achievement you are sharing in the presentation, are sitting in the room as well. What better way to thank them than recognize them among others for their contribution. This demonstrates your thoughtfulness. They will remember you for this. If they are your subordinates, they will see you as a great leader. Their motivation will get a boost. Others will also recognize your thoughtfulness. All of this making a great combo for a memorable presentation.

In conclusion, remember the three ingredients of a memorable finance presentation. It takes time to master the details, but knowing them and then consciously working on improving these skills will make you a great presenter in no time. I am sure you will already see a big difference in your next presentation. So, I wish you all the best! and would love to see your comments on what you think about these tips, or if you have applied any of them, how did they work out for you.

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